Physical Geology and Geomorphology:
The solar system, meteorites. Shape, size and surface relief of earth. Origin, age and interior of the earth, radioactive dating. Volcanoes-causes and effects. Earthquakes-causes and effects, seismicity and seismic zoning of India. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny.Island arcs, mid-oceanic ridges, trenches, transform faults and sea floor spreading. Continental drift, plate-tectonics and their mechanism. Basic concepts of geomorphology, weathering and mass wasting, geological agents in weathering and erosion. Action of river, wind, underground water, springs, glaciers, oceans, lakes and coral reefs.
Principles of geological mapping and map reading. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions, stress, strain and rupture concept. Primary and secondary structures. Unconformities- types and their recognition in the field. Folds, faults, their classification and recognition on maps and in the field. Joints and their classification.
Concept of species, branches of palaeontology, index fossils, guide fossils, Precambrian life, major extinctions in past life. Different kinds of microfossils and palynofossils. Applications of microfossils and palynofossils specifically in petroleum exploration. Morphology, geologic history and evolutionary trends in Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echinoidea and Cephalopoda. Morphology of Gastropoda, Pelecypoda, Graptoloidea and their environmental, stratigraphic significance. Evolutionary trends in Equidae, Hominidae and Proboscidae. Gondwana flora and its significance.
Stratigraphy and Geology of India:
Stratigraphic classification: Lithostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic, geologic time, biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic units and their possible interrelationship. Principles of stratigraphic correlation. Stratigraphic succession, distribution and economic importance of Precambrian and Phanerozoic rock sequences of India. Precambrian/Cambrian and Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary problems. Major volcanic events of geologic past in India. Palaeogeographic reconstruction of India during Gondwana time and Palaeogebe, Neogene periods. Physiographic and tectonic divisions of India. Origin and evolution of Himalayas.
Hydrogeology and engineering geology:
Occurrence of groundwater, hydrologic cycle, groundwater aquifers and their parameters, groundwater quality criteria for different uses. Problems and management of groundwater, groundwater recharge. Rainwater harvesting and watershed management. Engineering properties of rocks. Rocks as building and construction materials. Geological
investigations for dams , tunnels, bridges and highways, land hazards due to earthquakes, landslides and their impact on engineering structures.
Crystallography and mineralogy:
Elements of crystal forms and symmetry. Laws of crystallography. crystal systems and classes. Crystals twinning. Petrological microscope and accessories. Crystal optics. Physical, chemical and optical properties of common rock and ore forming minerals.
Geochemistry and Petrology:
Cosmic abundance of elements. Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements. Types of chemical bonds, coordination number, isomorphism and polymorphism. Trace elements. Magma-composition and types. Magmatic differentiation and assimilation. Bowen reaction series. Phase rule- unicomponent and bicomponent systems. Forms, texture, structure and classification of igneous rocks. Mode of occurrence, mineralogy, structure and distribution of the following rocks in India – granite, pegmatite, rhyolite diorite, gabbro, basalt and dolerite.
Metamorphism -definition, agents and types, texture, structure, concept of facies, grades and zones. Thermal and regional metamorphism of different parent rocks. Processes of sedimentation, digenesis and lithification. Clastic and non-clastic sedimentary rocks –their classification, petrography, structure and depositional environment. Sedimentary basins of India.
Ore and ore minerals, tenor of ore and classification of ore deposits. Processes of formation of mineral deposits. The study of physical properties and uses of the following ores with reference to Indian occurrences: Iron, manganese, aluminium, copper, lead, chromium zinc, , nickel, cobalt, antimony, gold, silver, platinum, uranium and thorium. Coal and petroleum deposits of India. Marine mineral resources.
Mining Geology and Environmental Geology:
Mining methods in hard rock and soft rock areas. Mining operations safety and legislation. Basic principles of environment and sustainable development in relation to geology. Natural hazards and their mitigation. Environmental impact of mining and industrial and radioactive waste disposal. Water pollution.