Problems of Philosophy – A
Section – I: Indian Philosophy:
1. Carvaka: Theory of Knowledge. 2. Jainism: Theory of Reality, Saptabhanginaya Bondage and Liberation. 3. Buddhism: Pratitysamtpda, Ksanikavda, Nairtmyavda. 4. Smkhya: Prakrit, Purusa, Theory of Causation, Liberation. 5. Nyya-Vaieesika: Theory of Prmna, Self, Liberation, God and Proofs for God’s Existence, Categories, Theory of
Causation. 6. Mmms: Theory of Knowledge. 7. Vednta: Schools of Vednta, Sankara, Rmunja, (Brahman, svara, tman, Jva, Jagat, My, Avid, Adhysa, Moksa).
Section II: Western Philosophy:
1. Plato: Theory of Ideas. 2. Aristotle: Form, Matter and Causation. 3. Descartes: Cartesian Method and certain knowledge, God, Mind-Body Dualism. 4. Spinoza: Substance. 5. Leibniz: Monads; 6. Locke: theory of knowledge, Rejection of Innate Ideas. 7. Berkeley: Essest Percipii. Hume: Scepticism, Causality. 8. Kant: Distinctions between synthetic and analytic judgments and between a priori and a posteriori judgments, Possibility of Synthetic a priori
judgments, Criticism of the Proofs for the Existence of God. 9. Hegel: Dialectical Method, Absolute Idealism. 10. Moore: Defence of common sense, Refutation of idealism, 11. Russell: Logical Atomism: Atomic Facts, Atomic sentences, Logical Constructions and Incomplete Symbols. 12. Logical Positivism: Verification theory and rejection of Metaphysics, (A.J. Ayer). 13. Hussere: Phenomenology: 14. Existentialism: Kierkegaard, Sartre. 15. Strawson: Theory of person.
Section III: Logic (Indian):
Unit-1: Definition and constituents of Anmana in Nyya and Buddhism; nature of Vypti in Nyya.
Unit-II: Inductive elements in Indian Logic: the concepts of vyptigrahopaya, smnya laksana pratyasatti, tarka, updhi-nirsa.
Section IV: Logic (Western):
Unit-I: Categorical Syllogism, Basic rules determining validity of syllogism and fallacies -arising as a result of the violation of those rules; immediate inferences: Conversion, obversion and contraposition.
Unit-II: Elementary notions and principles of truth-functional logic; techniques of symbolization; testing validity/ Invalidity of an argument form by truth-table method; proof construction for the validity of an argument form; statement—forms: tautologous, contradictory, and contingent.
Section-V: Contemporary Indian Philosophy:
(i) Swami Vivekananda: Man, Universal Religion.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi: Satyagraha, Sarvodaya, Non-violence.
(iii) S. Radha Krishnan: God and Absolute: Intellect and Intuition.
Problems of Philosophy-B
Section-I: Ethics (Indian):
Unit-I: A. The law of karma: ethical implications, Brahmaviharas.
B. Sdhrana dharma, Triratnas of Jainism.
Unit-II: A. Concept of Rna, Varna dharma and asrama-dharma, Yama and Niyama of Yoga.
B. Gita’s notion of Svadharma and Lokasangraha; Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Jnna Yoga.
Section-II: Ethics (Western):
Unit-I: A. Nature and Scope of ethics; concepts of right, good and duty.
B. Presuppositions of Morality; Freedom, Determinism and Responsibility.
Unit-II: A. Theories of Punishment: Deterrent, retributive and reformative theories; theories of relation between individual and society.
B. Normative ethics; Brief outlines of the Ethical Theories of Aristotle, J.Bentham, and J.S. Mill.
Section-III: Philosophy of Religion :
Unit-I: Nature & scope of Philosophy of Religion and its relation with Theology.
Unit-II: Approaches to the study of Religion: Historical, Sociological and Psychological.
Unit-III: Foundation of religious belief: Revelation, Faith and Mysticism.
Unit-IV: Different Theories about God : Deism, Theism and Pentheism.
Unit-V: Immorality of Soul: Proofs. Disproofs. Kinds.
Section-IV: Socio-Political Philosophy :
1. Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty. 2. Sovereignty (Austin, Laski, Kautilya) 3. Individual and State. 4. Democracy; Concept and forms. 5. Socialism and Marxism. 6. Humanism. 7. Secularism. 8. Gender-Equality. 9. Scientific Temper and Progress. 10. Philosophy of Ecology.
Section-V: Contemporary Western Philosophy :
Unit-I: Issues and problems: sense and reference (G. Frege); definite descriptions (B. Russell).
Unit-II: Theories of meaning; (L. Wittgenstein and J.L. Austin).