1. Science and Psychological Research:
Assumptions of science, characteristics of scientific method; Theory and facts. Nature of psychological research. Correlational and experimental.
2. Hypothesis Testing and making Inferences:
Population and sample, Random sampling, sampling distribution, standard errors of mean,SD and r; df ; Nature and assumptions of t and ANOVA, level of significance; Type I and Type II errors in inference making. Non-parametric Test. Application of statistical techniques (t-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation, chi-square, sign test and Fried man test).
3. Methods of Psychology:
Characteristics and components of methods in psychology (induction, deduction, introspection). Observation, survey, laboratory and field experiments, clinical and case study. Experimental and quasi experimental methods.
4. Construction and standardization of test:
Theory and procedure, Item analysis, Reliability, Validity. Development of norms and interpreting test scores cross validation.
5. Human Development:
Concept and theories of human development; methods of Study; Biological, cultural and social factors in human Development; Socialization: Role of family, peer, school and Media.
6. Attention and perception:
Selective attention and its theories. Factors influencing attention (set and characteristics of Stimulus). Sensation: Concept of threshold, absolute and Difference thresholds, signal detection and vigilance. Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception. Perceptual organization factors influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and readiness.
Concept and theories of learning (Pavlov, Skinner and Piaget). The process of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization And discrimination programmed learning, self instructional Learning concepts, types and schedules of reinforcement. Modelling and social learning.
8. Memory and forgetting:
Concept and definition of memory and forgetting, encoding, Storage and retrieval processes. Short term and long term memories. Factors influencing retention and forgetting. Theories of forgetting (Repression, Decay and interference theories). The concept of reminiscence.
9. Thinking and problem solving:
Processes of concept formation. Reasoning and problem solving. Nature and measurement of creativity, factors affecting creativity and creative thinking. Information processing.Decision making and judgement.
10. Intelligence and aptitude:
Concept and definition of intelligence and aptitude. Nature and theories of intelligence. Measurement of intelligence and aptitude. Concept and measurement of emotional and multiple intelligence.
11. Motivation and emotion:
Definition and concepts of instincts, needs, drives and motives. Theories of motivation and their applications ( drive reduction theory, Maslow’s motivational hierarchy). Social motivation: Achievement, power affiliation motives. Assessment of motivation.
Emotions: Definition and concept, theories, physiological correlates. Development expression measurement and control. Emotional Disorders: Stress and other causes of emotional disorders; Neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Concept and definition. Theories of personality (Psychoanalytical, socio cultural, interpersonal and developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic trait and type approaches). Techniques of assessment (Psychometric and projective). MPI, EPI, TAT, PF and Rorschach. Indian approaches to personality. Training for personality development.
13 Attitudes, Values and interests:
Definitions, concepts & components of attitudes, values and interests. Nature and function of attitudes, attitude and behaviour. Theories of reasoned and planned behaviour.Formation, change and measurement of attitudes. Attitude changes and strategies for stering values.
Communication models: Verbal and non verbal communication. Language and social interaction. Process and type of communication. Barriers in communication. Effective communication Interpersonal attraction and communication.
15 Recent Trends:
Computer application in psychological laboratory and psychological testing. Artificial intelligence, computer phobia, studies of dreams, meditation, hypnotic and drug induced states. Extrasensory perception, Intersensory perception.
Issues and Applications
1. Psychological Assessment:
Nature and scope of human assessments. Principles of psychological test construction (Item analysis, Reliability, validity and development of norms). Types of psychological test (Group, performance & verbal). Assessment of general ability and special abilities (aptitudes) assessment personality (projective and non-projective tests). Limitations of psychological tests, ethical issues in the use of psychological tests.
2. Psychology of Health:
Nature, scope and development of health psychology. Concept of health, positive health, well being, happiness and ill health. Psychological disorders (Anxiety disorders, Mood disorders, Schizophrenia and delusional disorders, personality disorders and disorders due to psychoactive substance use, stress disorders). Casual factors of psychological disorders. Factors influencing positive health, well being, life style and quality of life.
3. Approaches to treatment and therapy:
Psychodynamic therapies, Behaviour therapies, Cognitive Therapies, Humanistic and existential therapy, Indigenous therapies (yoga, Reiki, Meditation), Biofeedback therapy. Prevention and rehabilitation of mentally ill.
4. Organizational Behaviour:
Perspective for understanding OB: open system approach, Human relations perspective, Socio-technical approach. Person in the organization: Personality definitions and measurement, concept of skill, self awareness; Matching personality and job. Theories of motivation, leadership and power, conflict negotiation and managing stress.
5. Application of psychology to educational field:
Principles undertaking effective teaching- learning process, gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training. Training for improving memory and academic achievement.Personality development and value education. Educational, vocational, guidance and career counselling. Use of psychological tests in educational institutions.
6. Community Psychology:
Definition and concept of community psychology. Role of community psychologists in social change. Use of small groups in social action: Arousing community consciousness and actions for handling social problems. Group decision making and leadership for social change.
7. Rehabilitation Psychology:
Role of psychologist in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes. Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons, including elderly. Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviours. Rehabilitation of victims of violence and HIV/AIDs victims.
8 Psychology and social inequality poverty and deprivation:
Social psychology and social issues. Increasing role of social psychology in social problems. Social psychological analysis of deprivation; consequences of deprivation; poverty-theories of poverty, Concomitants of poverty; inequality; sources of deprivation; Inequality and political mobilization, Social justification, Social interventions to remove injustice.
9 Psychological strategies for social integration:
The concept of social integration. The problem of caste, class, power, religion and language. Conflicts and prejudice. Nature and components of prejudice. Acquisition of prejudice and reduction of prejudices.
10 Application of psychology in Information Technology and Communication Technology:
The present scenario of information technology and the communication technology boom and the role of psychologists Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and Communication Technology, Distance learning through IT and Communication Technology. E-Commerce and multilevel marketing. Impact of TV
and Computers Psychological consequence of recent developments of IT and Computers.
11. Application of psychology in the field of defence:
The concepts of Military psychology, Aviation psychology and psychological warfare. Role of psychologists in defence selection, recruitment and training of personnel. Role of counselling in facilitating the adjustment of personnel to military life. Psychological disorders due to war. Human engineering in defence. Psychological tests for defence personnel.
12. Application of psychology for Peace and Non-violence:
Concept of peace and non-violence, factors influencing peace, non-violence and aggression, obstacles to peace, Peace through coercive power, non-violence, world order, personal and community transformation. Conflict resolution through communication, negotiation and arbitration. Processes and skills in healing stress & trauma in post
conflict society skill development in international negotiation.
13. Psychology and Economic development:
Achievement motivation and economic development Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour. Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development. Women entrepreneurs. Consumer rights and consumer courts.
14. Application of psychology to environment:
Effect of noise, pollution and atmospheric conditions, density and crowding on behaviour. Effect of perception, preferences and awareness of environment on environment. Nature and consequences of environment deprivation. Socio-psychological dimensions of environmental impact. Creating environmental awareness. Social movements (Chipko,
Tehri, Narmada). Naturalistic observation and field surveys.
15. Other applications of psychology:
Sports psychology- improving performance of sports personnel, political behaviour, voting behaviour, development of ideology and use of social groups in politics, understanding of corruption, bribery and other forms of Anti social behaviours, strategies to deal with terrorism and violence, concept of social justice and injustice. Social
interventions to remove injustice. Issues of human and social development and quality of life and development.