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Medical Science Syllabus – HPExams.in
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Medical Science Syllabus

PAPER-I

ANATOMY
1. GROSS ANATOMY
I. Osteology
(a) Names of the bones of the body and their position; classification of the bones with examples; general features of the bone and normal development; microscopic anatomy of bone; general pattern of blood supply; ossification of the bones of the limbs for age determination. X-rays of bones.
(b) Process of repair of bone.
2. Muscular System
(a) Classification and identification of the muscles of the body: main attachments, nerve supply and action(s), microscopic anatomy of muscles and the nerve terminations.
(b) Details of attachments of the muscles; ultrastructural features of muscle; mechanism of the movement caused by the muscle/muscles and various forces exerted by them and their detailed action(s).
3. Arthrology
(a) Definition and classification of joints, general features of different types of joints; detailed study of major joints of the limbs and movements performed at various joints in the body.
(b) Microscopic anatomy of articular cartilage; maintenance of articular cartilages; blood supply and nerve supply of the joints.
4. Cardio Vascular System
(a) Normal position, external features and parts of the heart; internal features of the chambers of heart, names of the blood vessels and venous drainage of the organs, structures and body as a whole, conducting system of heart, fibroskeleton of heart.
(b) Variation(s), developmental anomalies of heart and blood vessels, valvular defects and their effects in pathogenesis of the anomalies.
5. Respiratory System
(a) Position, parts, relations, blood supply of upper and lower respiratory tract. Pleura, its reflection, nerve supply, pleural recesses and their significance, bronchopulmonary segments, their importance.
(b) Mechanism of respiration
6. Digestive System
(a) Position, extent, parts, relations, blood supply, nerve supply, lymphatic drainage and sphincters of the gastrointestinal system.
(b) Sphincteric action including functional implications.
7. Genito-Urinary System
(a) Parts, position, relations, blood supply, nerve supply and lymphatic drainage of uterus, cervix, vagina, ovary, fallopian tubes, testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens, prostate, kidney, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra
(b) Innervation of urinary bladder in detail
8. Endocrine System and Individual Endocrine Glands
(a) Various endocrine glands, their location, relations, blood supply, nerve supply and lymphatic drainage.
(b) Clinical manifestations of common endocrine disorders.
9. Nervous System and its components
(a) Parts of nervous system, neuron meninges, nerve terminals, neuroglia, myelination, degeneration and regeneration, ventricles, CSF, spinal cord and its blood supply. Motor and sensory pathways, cranial nerves, thalamus, cerebellum, limbic and autonomic pathways. Functional cortical areas, motor and sensory cortex and their blood supply.
10. Special Sensory Organs
(a) Gross Anatomy of :
(i) eye ball, extra ocular muscles their nerve supply and actions (s)
(ii) ear
(iii) nose
(iv) tongue, its musculature blood supply and lymphatic drainage.
11. Lymphatic System
(a) Location of the major groups of the lymphnodes of the body and their drainage areas. Gross anatomy of the major lymphatics specially thoracic duct and its tributaries.
12. Surface Anatomy
(a) Surface features of the body and projection of the outline of heart, its borders, surfaces and valves, lungs, their borders, fissures and hila, pleura, liver, kidneys and various abdominal and pelvic organs and important vessels and nerves
13. Cross Sectional Anatomy
Cross sections of thorax, abdomen and pelvis to understand the interrelationship of organs and structures.
II. MICROANATOMY
III. EMBRYOLOGY
III. A General Embryology
III.B Systemic Embryology
BIOCHEMISTRY
BIOLOGICAL CELL
(a) Architecture, compartmentation, cell membrane structure and functions; structure function relationships.
(b) Membrane transport.
BIOMOLECULES
(a) Function and classification of carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acids.
(b) Stereoisomerism and chemistry of monosaccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids.
(c) Structural organization and structure-function relationships of proteins. Hemoglobin and myoglobin, molecular mechanism of O2 transport and storage. Molecular basis of sickle cell anaemia and thallesemias.
(d) Molecular mechanism of muscle contraction.
(e) Plasma proteins, their functions and clinical significance.
ENZYMES
(a) Nomenclature, classification,
(b) Kinetics, mechanism of enzymatic catalysis.
(c) Factors influencing enzymatic catalyses, enzyme activators and inhibitors.
(d) Regulation of enzyme activity,
(e) Clinical enzymology, isoenzymes.
Metabolic pathways, their regulation and metabolic interrelationships
METABOLISM: GENERAL CONCEPTS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF METABOLIC
PATHWAYS.
Carbohydrate metabolism
(a) Pathways of glucose metabolism: glycolysis
(b) HMP shunt
(c) Gluconeogenesis
(d) Glycogenolysis, glycogenesis
(e) Galactose and fructose metabolism
(f) Glycogen storage disease
(g) Inborn errors of glucose metabolism
(h) Regulation of glucose metabolism.
Amino acid metabolism
(a) General reactions, transamination, its metabolic and diagnostic significance
(b) Disposal of amino acid nitrogen and detoxication of urea
(c) Metabolic fate of amino acid carbon skeleton
(d) Sulphur containing amino acids
(e) In born errors of branched chain and aromatic amino acids
(f) Important amino acid derivatives.
Lipid metabolism
(a) Biosynthesis and degradation of fatty acids, phospolipids and triacylglycerols
(b) Biosynthesis of cholesterol, chemistry and metabolism of lipoproteins.
(c) Hyperlipoproteinemias
(d) Lipid storage disease.
(e) Ketone bodies: their synthesis, utilization and conditions leading to ketoacidosis, prostaglandin.
TCA cycle and biological oxidation, prostanoids.
Regulation of the metabolic pathways
(a) Carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism
(b) Interlinks between these pathways.
(c) Organ interrelationships in metabolism,
(d) Blood glucose regulation, and its impairment in diabetes mellitus.
(e) Metabolic adaptation in the fed state, fasting and prolonged starvation.
(f) Metabolic derangements and adaptations in diabetes mellitus.
FOOD ASSIMILATION AND NUTRITION
(a) Digestive enzymes, their action on dietary carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
(b) Absorption of glucose, amino acids and lipids.
(c) Gastric, pancreatic and intestinal function tests, liver function tests.
(d) Functions of dietary ingredients, the macro and micronutrients.
(e) Fat soluble and water soluble vitamins
(f) Malnutrition
(g) Iron metabolism and heme synthesis.
HORMONES
(a) Molecular basis of hormonal action, signal transduction mechanisms.
(b) Chemistry, functions and mechanism of action of hormones of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, panaceas, and gonads.
(c) Biosynthesis of steroid hormones their functions and mechanism of action.
(d) Pineal body
(e) Endorphins and encephalins,
(f) Calcium homeostasis.
(g) Hormonal interplay in the regulation of metabolism.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
(a) Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA structure
(b) DNA Replication,
(c) DNA Transcription
(d) Post-transcriptional processing.
(e) Translation of genetic code
(f) Regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis inhibitors of protein synthesis.
(g) DNA repair mechanisms,
(h) Applied aspects of purine and pyrimidine metabolism
(i) Genetic Engineering: Recombinant DNA technology
(j) DNA and diagnostics
(k) DNA repair mechanisms and related disorders
(l) Telomers, telomerases
(m) Inhibitors of DNA replication, apoptosis
pH, Buffer, physiological buffer systems
(a) Regulation of blood pH, acidosis, alkalosis,
(b) Renal functions tests.
IMMUNOLOGY
(a) Reticuloendothelial system, components and functions of the innate and adaptive immunity.
(b) Role of T and B lymphocytes, antigen presentation
(c) Induction of immune response
(d) Cell mediated immune response
(e) Immunoglobulin structure and functions
(f) Humoral immune response
(g) Fate of antigen antibody complex,
(h) Complement system
(i) Generation of antibody diversity,
(j) Hypersensitivities
(k) Immunoregulation, autoimmunity, tolerance
(l) HLA, disease association & transplantation
(m) Immunological techniques, application in medicine (vaccines, immunotherapy, immunoassays and immunodiagnostics).
ENVIRONMENTAL BIOCHEMISTRY, CANCER AND CANCER MAKERS
(a) Xenbiotics, interaction with biomolecules, effects, metabolism, detoxication,
(b) Biochemical characteristics of cancer
(c) Environmental pollutants and carcinogenensis.
PHYSIOLOGY
NERVE–MUSCLE
1. Physicochemical properties of cell membrane
2. Cell membrane: permeability & transport
3. Principles of bioelectricity
4. Genesis of resting membrane potential
5. Action potential
6. Properties of nerve-fibres
7. Functional anatomy of neuromuscular junction
8. Neuromuscular transmission
9. Muscle proteins – (Biochemistry)
10. Excitation – contraction coupling
11. Contraction kinetics of skeletal muscles
12. Smooth muscle
13. Injury & repair of nerves and muscles
14. Energetics of nerve & muscle
15. Work Physiology
BLOOD
1. Functions of plasma proteins
2. Principles of hemopoiesis
3. Regulation of erythropoiesis
4. Destruction of red cells: Jaundice
1. Anemia
5. Regulation of WBC production
6. Functions of WBC
7. Functions of platelets
8. Hemostasis
9. Blood groups
10. Physiological basis of transfusion medicine
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
1. Lung volumes and capacities
2. Mechanics of respiration
3. Composition of respired air: pulmonary ventilation
4. Exchange of gases in the lungs
5. Ventilation – perfusion ratio
6. O2
carriage, O2
–dissociation curve
7. CO2
carriage, CO2
–dissociation curve
8. Neural regulation of respiration
9. Chemical regulation of respiration
10. Hypoxia, cyanosis and dyspnoea
11. Special features of pulmonary circulation
12. Artificial respiration Artificial respiration
13. Therapeutic use of oxygen .
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
1. Introduction to CVS
2. Properties of cardiac muscle
3. Action potential and spread of impulse in the heart
4. E-C coupling in the myocardium
5. ECG
6. Pressure changes in the heart. Cardiac cycle
7. Functional basis of heart sounds and murmurs
8. Neural regulation of cardiac activity
9. Regulation of heart rate
10. Intrinsic regulation of heart’s action. Cardiac output
11. Cardiac output: measurement and regulation
12. Nutrition and metabolism of heart
13. Exercise physiology
14. General principles of hemodynamics
15. Cardiovascular reflexes
16. Neural control of circulation
17. Special features of cerebral circulation
18. Special features of circulation in skeletal muscles and skin
GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
1. Introduction to G.I. Physiology: general organization of G.I. tract
2. Mastication and deglutition
3. Gastric secretion
4. Regulation of gastric secretion
5. Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer
6. Biliary and pancreatic secretions
7. Physiology of colon
8. Pathophysiology of diarrheal disease
NUTRITION
1. Introduction to nutrition. RMR
2. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber
3. Proteins
4. Fats
5. Recommended dietary allowances
6. Diet during pregnancy and lactation
7. Diet during infancy and childhood
Environmental Physiology
1. Body temperature regulation
2. Man in cold environment
3. Man in hot environment
4. Hypothermia and its clinical applications
5. Physiological responses to high attitude
6. Physiological responses to high atmospheric pressure
REPRODUCTION
1. Introduction to reproductive system
2. Male reproductive physiology
3. Female reproductive physiology
4. Hypothalamic – pituitary – gonadal axis
5. Puberty
6. Pregnancy
7. Parturition and lactation
8. Reproductive ageing
KIDNEY
1. Renal hemodynamics and glomerular filtration
2. Renal tubular function
3. Regulation of renal function
4. Physiological basis of renal function tests
5. Micturition
NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
General
Sensory system
Motor system
Visceral and motivational system
EEG, sleep and higher nervous functions
Special Senses
FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY
1. FORENSIC PATHOLOGY
Definition of Forensic Medicine, State Medicine, Legal Medicine and Medical Jurisprudence.
History of Forensic Medicine.
1. Criminal procedure code, Criminal cases, Civil cases, Definition of Inquest , Different types of inquest procedures police inquest, magistrate’s inquest. Cognizable and non
cognizable offences, Different types of courts in India and their powers – Supreme court, High Court, Session Court, Magistrate’s court. Court procedures: Summons, oath, affirmation, conduct money, types of witnesses, types of examination in court.
Examination in chief, Cross examination, Re- examination, court questions, Evidence –Oral, Documentary, Medical evidence, Medical Certificate, Dying declaration, Dying deposition, Conduct of a doctor in witness box and Examination of dead body at the scene of crime.
2. Definition of death, Types of death-Somatic/Clinical/Cellular, Molecular and Brain death including cortical death and Brainstem death, Natural and Unnatural death, Suspended animation Moment of death, Modes of death – Coma, Syncope and Asphyxia, Presumption of death and Survivorship and Sudden death.
3. Description of signs of death. Post-mortem changes after death –cooling of dead body, post-mortem lividity, rigor mortis, cadaveric spasm, heat and cold stiffening, putrefaction, mummification, adipocere formation maceration and preservation of dead bodies.
4. Estimation of time since death on postmortem examination.
5. Examination of mutilated bodies or fragments, bundle of bones and exhumation.
6. Definition of postmortem examination, Different types of autopsies, aims and objectives of postmortem examination, Legal requirements to conduct postmortem examination, Procedure to conduct medicolegal postmortem examination, obscure autopsy, examination of clothing, preservation of viscera on postmortem examination for chemical analysis and other medicolegal purposes, postmortem artefacts.
7. Definition and classification of asphyxia, medico-legal interpretation of postmortem findings in asphyxial deaths.
8. Definition and types of hanging and strangulation. Description of clinical findings, causes of death, postmortem findings and medico-legal aspects of death due to hanging and strangulation. Examination and despatch of ligature material.
9. Definition, pathophysiology, clinical features, postmortem findings and medicolegal aspects of traumatic asphyxia, obstruction of nose & mouth, suffocation, sexual asphyxia.
10. Definition, types, pathophysiology, clinical features, postmortem findings and medicolegal aspects of drowning, diatom test, Gettler test.
11. Clinical features, postmortem finding and medico legal aspects of injuries due to physical agents heat (heat-hyper-pyrexia, heat stroke, sun stroke, Heat exhaustion (Prostration), heat cramps (miner‘s cramp)), cold (hypothermia, Frostbite, trench foot, Immersion foot), lightening, electrocution and radiations.
12. Clinical features, postmortem findings and medicolegal aspects of death due to starvation and neglect. Types of injuries, clinical features, pathophysiology, postmortem findings and medicolegal aspects in cases of burns and scalds.
13. Definition of infanticide, foeticide and stillbirth. Signs of intrauterine death, Signs of live birth, viability of foetus, age determination of foetus, demonstration of ossification centres, precipitate labour, Haase’s rule, Hydrostatic test, maceration, Sudden infants death syndrome, Munchausen’s
syndrome by proxy.
2. CLINICAL FORENSIC MEDICINE
1. Establishment of identity of living persons – Definition of Corpus Delicti, Race, sex, religion, complexion, stature, age determination using morphology, teeth-eruption, decay, bite marks, bones ossification centres, medicolegal aspects of age. Foetal age determination, Identification of criminals, unknown persons, dead bodies from the remains-hairs, fibers, teeth, anthropometry, dactylography, foot prints, scars, tattoos,
poroscopy and Superimposition.
2. Definition and classification of injuries, Various types of injuries. Abrasion, bruise, laceration, stab wound, incised wound, chop wound, defence wound, self inflicted/fabricated wounds and their medicolegal aspects.
3. Description of regional injuries to head (Scalp wounds, fracture skull, Intracranial haemorrhages, Coup and contrecoup injuries), Neck, Chest, Abdomen, Limbs, Genital organs, Spinal cord and skeleton, Vehicular injuries–Primary and Secondary impact, Secondary injuries, crush syndrome, railway spine, reconstruction of scene of crime.
4. Definition of Injuries. IPC pertaining to injuries. Accidental, Suicidal and Homicidal Injuries. Types of Injuries – Simple ,Grievous and Dangerous. Different types of weapons, Dangerous weapons and their examination. Antemortem and Potmortem Inuries, Medicolegal aspects of injuries. Factors influencing, Infliction of Injuries and Healing, Different legal questions, examination and certification of wounds, Wound as a cause of death:
Primary and Secondary. Dowry death. Workman’s Compensation Act.
5. Firearm injuries. Classification of fire-arms. Structure and components of various firearms, description of ammunition propellant charge and mechanism of fire-arms, Various terminology in relation of firearm – calibre, range, choking. Description of different types of cartridges and bullets.
6. Description of wound ballistic, blast injuries and their interpretation. Preservation and despath of trace evidences in cases of firearm and blast injuries. Various test related to confirmation of use of firearms.
7. Definition and types of sexual offences, Definition of rape. Section 376 IPC, Examination of the victim of an alleged case of rape, Examination of the accused of an alleged case of rape, preparation of report and framing the opinion in rape cases, preservation and despatch of trace evidences in cases of rape. Adultery, Unnatural Sexual offences Sodomy, Examination of accused and victim, preparation of report and framing of opinion, preservation and despath of trace evidences in cases of sodomy, incest, lesbianism, buccal coitus, bestiality, indecent assault. Sexual perversions. Fetichism, transvestism, voyeurism, sadism necrophagia, masochism, exhibitionism, frotteurism,
necrophillia.
8. Definitions of Impotence, Sterility, Frigidity, Sexual Dysfunction, Premature Ejaculation, Causes off orensic Medicine & Toxicology Impotence and sterility in male and female, Sterilization, Artificial Insemination, Surrogate mother, Delhi Artificial Insemination act 1995.
9. Definition of Virginity and defloration, anatomy of male and female genitalia, Hymen and its types, Medicolegal importance of hymen, Medicolegal importance of pregnancy, diagnosis of pregnancy, Superfoetation, superfecundation, Definition of Legitimacy and its medicolegal importance, Diputed paternity and maternity, Medicolegal aspects of
delievery, Signs of delievery, Signs of recent and remote delievery in living and dead.
10. Definition, Classification and complication of abortion, MTP act 1971, Methods of procuring criminal abortion, Evidences of abortion-Living and Dead,Duties of doctor in cases of abortion.
11. Battered baby syndrome.
3. MEDICAL JURISPRUNDENCE
1. Medical council of India, state medical councils- Their functions and disciplinary control. Laws in relation to medical practice, duties of medical practitioner towards the patients and society. Indian Medical Register, rights priviliges of medical practitioner, penal erasure, infamous conduct, disciplinary committee, warning notice & euthanasia.
2. Code of medical ethics, unethical practices, dichotomy, consumer protection act , Prenatal diagnostic techniques act, Human organ transplantation act, ESI act, medicolegal issues in relation to family violence, Violation of human rights, NHRC and doctors, Doctors and media, ethics related to HIV patients.
3. Malpractice- Civil, Criminal and ethical
4. Consent, kinds of consent, informed consent, negligence, vicarious liability, the doctrine of res Ipsa Loquitor, Contributory Negligence, Therapeutic Privilige, Rules of Consent, Malingering, Therapeutic Misadventure, corporate negligence, Professional negligence, Professional Secrecy, Human Experimentation, IPC related to medical Practice, Products liability, Medical Indemnity Insurance, Medical records.
4. FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY
1. Definition, Various types of mental disorder, Lucid interval, Classification of mental disorder, mental sub normality, Diagnosis of Insanity and Feigned insanity, Restraint, admission and discharge of Insane in accordance to Mental Health act 1994, Mental disorder and responsibility-Civil and Criminal responsibility, Testamentary Capacity, Mc Naughten‘s rule.
5. FORENSIC SCIENCES
1. Definition of DNA fingerprinting, Techniques of DNA Fingerprinting, Application of DNA profiling in forensic Medicine, HLA typing.
2. Locard’s exchange principle, Examination, preservation, despatch and identification of blood, Seminal stains (Physical, microscopic, chemical and serological test, blood grouping) and its medicolegal aspects, Saliva, vaginal fluid, faecal and urinary stain, examination of skin, nail tooth pulp and other body fluids group specific substances, hazards of blood transfusion.
B. TOXICOLOGY
1. GENERAL TOXICOLOGY
2. CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
3. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
4. ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY
MICROBIOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY
(i) Natural history of microbial diseases.
(ii) Unique differentiating features of eukaryotes and prokaryotes
(iii) Source and spread of microbes
(iv) Rationale for classifying microbes into bacteria, fungi viruses, parasites.
2. INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIOLOGY
– The nature of bacteria
– Morphological differences
– Growth requirement
– Nomenclature and classification
– Enumeration of bacteria responsible for certain primary diseases.
3. BACTERIAL STAINING AND CULTIVATION
– Microscopy : types and principles
– Staining : principles
– Media for growth / bacterial colony
– Familiarization with materials used
4. COMMON TESTS FOR BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION
– Various types of staining such as simple, differential staining; different procedures of staining and their principles
– Motility testing
– Common sugar fermentation and other biochemical tests such as Catalase / Coagulase/citrate utilization/ nitrate reduction / urease/ PPA/ OF/ Indole etc.
– Sensitivity testing
5. INTRODUCTION TO PARASITOLOGY
– Biology of protozoa
– Protozoan parasites causing human infection
– Medically important helminths
– Ectoparasites
6. INTRODUCTION TO VIROLOGY
– The nature and properties of viruses
– Classification of viruses
– Morphology
7. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF VIRAL INFECTION
– Brief appraisal of pathogenicity of viruses
– Culture methods
– Cytopathic effects
– Inclusion bodies
– Animal inoculation
– Serological test (CFT, HAI, neutralisation)
8. INTRODUCTION TO MYCOLOGY
– Nature of fungi: basic structures and classification
– Superficial mycoses
– Subcutaneous mycosis
– Systemic fungal infections with opportunistic mycosis
9. COMMON LABORATORY METHODS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS
(i) KOH preparation with principles
(ii) Lactophenal cotton blue preparation
(iii) Negative staining and procedures
(iv) Special staining and procedures
(v) Culture of fungi
(vi) Serodiagnosis
10. COLLECTION & TRANSPORT OF SAMPLES
– Collection of clinical samples
– Transport of various appropriate clinical samples.
– Transport media
– Description of container with contents or no contents.
– Preliminary processing of clinical samples
11. HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIP
– Presence of normal flora
– Enumeration and explanation of various host-parasite interaction
– Mechanism of pathogenesis adhesion/ colonisation/ virulence and toxigenicity
– Host response
– Koch’s postulates
12. BACTERIAL AND VIRAL GENETICS
– Structure and replication of bacterial DNA
– Plasmids
– Transfer of genetic materials Microbiology
– Mutations
– Viral replication
– Interactions among viruses (recombination, genetic reactivation, complementation etc).
– Epidemiology of viral infection
– Recombinant DNA technology
13. IMMUNITY TO INFECTION
– Normal immune system
– Innate Immunity
– Antigens – presentation and association in immunity
– Immunoglobulins and their role in immunity
– Cell mediated immunity and their role
– Hypersensitivity
– Immunodeficiency
– Tolerance
14. IMMUNODIAGNOSIS
– Antigen-antibody reactions in infectious diseases and diagnostic tests based on these.
15. VACCINES
16. STERILISATION AND DISINFECTION
17. BACTERIOLOGY OF WATER AND AIR INFECTIONS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
18. Microorganisms associated with gastrointestinal infections.
(Bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi).
19. Gastrointestinal infections caused by parasites
19a. Amoebiasis
– Entamoeba spp
– Naegleria spp
– Acanthamoeba spp
19b. Amoebiasis (Micro, Gastro, Surg, Paeds)
19c. Other intestinal protozoal infections (Micro, Gastro, Paeds)
PATHOLOGY
(A) GENERAL PATHOLOGY
2. Cell Injury
a) Cell injury: Causes and Mechanism: Ischemic, Toxic.
b) Reversible cell injury: Types, morphology: Swelling, vacuolation, hyaline, fatty change.
c) Irreversible cell injury : Types of Necrosis
3. Amyloidosis and Calcification
a) Calcification : Dystrophic and Metastatic
b) Amyloidosis : classification, Pathogenesis, Morphology
4. Inflammation and Repair
a) Acute inflammation : Features, causes, vascular and cellular events.
b) Morphologic variants of acute inflammation
c) Inflammatory cells and Mediators
d) Chronic inflammation: Causes, types, nonspecific and Granulomatous with examples
e) Wound healing by primary and secondary union, factors promoting and delaying the process
f) Healing at specific sites including bone healing
5. Circulatory Disturbances
a) Edema : Pathogenesis and types
b) Chronic venous congestion : Pathogenesis and changes in Lung, Liver, Spleen
c) Thrombosis and Embolism : Formation, Fate and Effects
d) Infarction : Types, common sites, Gangrene
e) Shock : Pathogenesis, Types, Morphologic changes
f) Derangements of Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
6. Growth Disturbances and Neoplasia
a) Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Hypoplasia, Metaplasia, Malformation, Agenesis, Dysplasia
b) Neoplasia: Classification, Histogenesis, Biologic Behaviour: Benign and Malignant;
Carcinoma and Sarcoma
c) Malignant Neoplasia: Grades and Stages, Local and distant spread
d) Carcinogenesis: Environmental carcinogens, chemical, viral, occupational, Heredity and cellular oncogenes
e) Tumour and Host Interactions : Systemic effects including paraneoplastic syndromes, Tumor immunology
f) Laboratory diagnosis : Cytology, Biopsy, Tumor markers
7. Immunopathology
a) Immune system : organisation, cells, antibodies and regulation of immune responses.
b) Hypersensitivity : types and examples, Antibody and cell mediated tissue injury with examples.
c) Primary immunodeficiency
d) Secondary Immunodeficiency including HIV Infection Pathology
e) Auto-immune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosis; organ specific and non-organ specific such as polyarteritis nodosa, Hashimoto’s disease.
f) Tumor Immunity
g) Organ transplantation : Immunologic basis of Rejection and Graft versus host reaction
8. Infectious Diseases
a) Mycobacterial Diseases : Tuberculosis and Leprosy
b) Bacterial diseases : Pyogenic, Typhoid, Diphtheria, Gram negative infection, Bacillary dysentery, Syphilis
c) Viral : Polio, Herpes, Rabies, Measles; Rickettsial, Chlamydial infection
d) Fungal diseases and opportunistic infections
e) Parasitic Diseases: Malaria, Filaria, Amebiasis, Kala-azar, Cysticercosis, Hydatid
f) AIDS: Aetiology, modes of transmission, diagnostic procedures and handling of infected material and health education.
9. Miscellaneous Disorders
a) Autosomal and sex-linked disorders with examples
b) Metabolic disorders
c) Protein energy malnutrition and vitamin deficiency disorders
d) Radiation Injury
e) Disorders of Pigment and Mineral metabolism such as bilirubin, melanin, hemosiderin
(B) SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY
1. Cardiovascular Pathology
a) Rheumatic fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease : Pathogenesis, Morphology and effects
b) Infective Endocarditis : Causes, Pathogenesis and Morphology
c) Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Heart Disease; Myocardial Infarction
d) Diseases of blood vessels other than atherosclerosis
e) Hypertension and Hypertensive Heart Disease
f) Congenital Heart Disease : ASD, VSD, Fallot’s Bicuspid aortic valve, PDA
g) Pericarditis and other pericardial diseases
h) Cardiomyopathy
2. Respiratory Pathology
a) Structure of Bronchial tree and alveolar walls, normal and altered lung function; concept
of obstructive and restrictive lung disorders
b) Inflammatory diseases of bronchi: chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive lung disease
c) Pneumonias : Lobar, Broncho, Interstitial
d) Pulmonary suppuration including lung abscess : Etiopathogenesis and morphology
e) Pulmonary Tuberculosis : Primary and Secondary, Morphologic types including pleuritis
f) Emphysema : Types, pathogenesis
g) Atelectasis and Hyaline Membrane Disease
h) Tumors : Benign; Carcinoid, Malignant; Squamous cell, Oat cell, Adeno, etiopathogenesis.
i) Occupational lung disorders : anthracosis, silicosis, asbestosis, mesothelioma
3. Urinary Tract Pathology
a) Renal structure, basis of impaired function, urine analysis
b) Glomerulonephritis: Classification, Primary Proliferative and Non Proliferative
c) Secondary Glomerulonephritis: SLE, Purpura, Polyarteritis, Amyloidosis, Diabetes
d) Nephrotic Syndrome
e) Acute Renal Failure : Acute tubular and cortical necrosis
f) Progressive renal failure and end stage renal disease
g) Pyelonephritis, Reflux Nephropathy, Interstitial Nephritis
h) Renal tumors : Renal cell carcinoma, Nephroblastoma
i) Renal vascular disorders, kidney changes in Hypertension
j) Urinary bladder : cystitis, carcinoma
k) Urinary Tract Tuberculosis
l) Urolithiasis and Obstructive Uropathy
m) Renal Malformations : Polycystic kidneys
4. Pathology of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract
a) Oral Pathology : Leukoplakia; Carcinoma oral Cavity and Esophagus
b) Salivary gland tumors : Mixed, Adenoid cystic, warthin’s
c) Peptic ulcer : etiopathogenesis and complications; gastritis: types
d) Tumors of stomach: Benign; Polyp, Leiomyoma, Malignant; Adenocarcinoma, Lymphoma
e) Inflammatory diseases of small intestine: Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Crohn’s, Appendictis
f) Inflammatory diseases of appendix and large intestine : Amoebic colitis, Bacillary dysentery, Ulcerative Colitis
g) Ischemic and Pseudomembranous enterocolitis, diverticulosis
h) Malabsorption : Celiac disease, Trophical sprue and other causes
i) Tumours and Tumor like condition of the large and small intestine : Polyps, Carcinoid, Carcinoma, Lymphoma
j) Pancreatitis
k) Pancreatic tumors : Endocrine, Exocrine and periampullary
5. Hematopathology
a) Constituents of blood and bone marrow, Regulation of hematopoiesis
b) Anaemia : classification and clinical features; clinical and lab. approach to diagnosis Pathology
c) Nutritional anaemias : Iron deficiency anaemia, Folic Acid/Vit B 12 deficiency anaemia including pernicious anaemia
d) Hemolytic Anaemias : Classification and invesgiation
e) Hereditary hemolytic anaemias : Thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia
f) Hereditary hemolytic anaemias : hereditary spherocytosis, G-6-PD deficiency
g) Acquired hemolytic anaemias
h) Hemolytic Anaemias : Autoimmune, Alloimmune, Drug induced Microangiopathic and Malaria
i) Aplastic Anaemia, PNH and Myelodysplastic syndrome
j) Hemostatic disorders : Platelet deficiency; ITP, Drug induced, secondary
k) Coagulopathies : Coagulation factor deficiency; hemophilia, DIC and anticoagulant control
l) Leukocytic disorders : Leukocytosis, leukopenia, leukemoid reaction
m) Acute and chronic Leukemia : Classification, Diagnosis
n) Myeloproliferative disorders : Polycythemia, Myelofibrosis
o) Multiple myeloma and dysproteinemias
p) Blood transfusion : grouping and cross matching, untoward reactions, transmissible infections including HIV and hepatitis
6. Liver and Biliary Tract Pathology
a) Jaundice : Types, Pathogenesis and Differentiation
b) Hepatitis : Acute and Chronic, Etiology, Pathogenesis and Pathology
c) Cirrhosis: Etiology, Postnecrotic, Alcoholic, Metabolic, Pathology, Morphology (Macronodular, Micronodular, Mixed), complications
d) Portal Hypertension : Types including non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis and Manifestations
e) Tumors of Liver : hepatocellular and metastatic carcinoma, tumor markers
f) Concept of hepatocellular failure
g) Diseases of the gall bladder : Cholecystitis, Cholelithiasis, Carcinoma
7. Lymphoreticular System
a) Lymphadenitis : nonspecific, Granulomatous
b) Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas : Classification, Morphology
c) Diseases of the spleen : Splenomegaly causes and effects
d) Thymus : Dysgenesis, Atrophy, Hyperplasia, Neoplasia
8. Reproductive System
a) Diseases of cervix : cervicitis, cervical carcinoma, etiology, types and cytologic diagnosis
b) Hormonal influences and histological appearances of different phases of menstrual cycle and the abnormalities associated with it
c) Diseases of uterus : endometritis, endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, adenomyosis, smooth muscle tumors
d) Trophoblastic disease : Hydatidiform mole, Choriocarcinoma
e) Diseases of the breast : Mastitis, abscess, Fibrocystic disease, Neoplastic lesions :Fibroadenoma, Carcinoma, Phyllodes tumor
f) Prostate : Nodular Hyperplasia and Carcinoma
g) Ovarian and testicular tumors
h) Carcinoma of penis
i) Pelvic inflammatory diseases including salpingitis
j) Genital Tuberculosis
9. Osteopathology
a) Bone – general considerations, reactions to injury and healing of fractures
b) Osteomyelitis : Acute, Chronic, Tuberculous, Mycetoma
c) Metabolic diseases: Rickets / Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis, Hyperparathyroidisism
d) Tumors : Primary, Osteosarcoma, Osteoclastoma, Ewing’s Sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma; Metastatic
e) Arthritis : Rheumatoid, Osteo and tuberculous
10. Endocrine Pathology
a) Scope of endocrine control and investigations
b) Diabetes Mellitus : Types, Pathogenesis, pathology
c) Nonneoplastic lesions of thyroid : Iodine deficiency goiter, autoimmune thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis, myxedema
d) Tumors of thyroid – adenoma, carcinoma : Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, Anaplastic
e) Adrenal diseases : Cortical hyperplasia, atrophy, tuberculosis, tumors of cortex and medulla
f) Parathyroid hyperplasia and tumors and Hyperparathyroidism
g) Pituitary tumors
h) Multiple endocrine neoplasia
11. Neuropathology
a) Structural Organization, specific cell types, and reaction patterns
b) Inflammatory disorders : Pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis, brain abscess, tuberculoma
c) CNS tumors – primary : glioma and meningioma (excluding histopathology) and metastatic
d) CSF and its disturbances : cerebral edema, raised intracranial pressure
e) Cerebrovascular diseases : Atherosclerosis, thrombosis, embolism, aneurysm, Hypoxia, Infarction and Hemorrhage
f) Peripheral neuropathies and demyelnating disorders
g) Diseases of muscles
h) Traumatic lesions of CNS
PHARMACOLOGY
A. GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY
A) Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs, routes of drug administration
B) Basic principles of drug action
C) Adverse reactions to drugs
D) Factors modifying drug response
B. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM & PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
a) Neurohumoral transmission
b) Sympathetic nervous system – sympathomimetics, sympatholytics
c) Parasympathetic – Cholinergics, Anticholinergics, Ganglion stimulants and blockers
d) Skeletal muscle relaxants
e) Local anaesthetics
C. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
a) General principles – neurotransmitters, definition and common transmitters
b) Drug therapy of various CNS disorders like epilepsy, depression, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, neuro-degeneration etc.
c) Pharmacotherapy of pain
d) General anaethetics
e) Drugs for arthritides & gout
D. AUTACOIDS
a) Histamine and antihistaminics
b) Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxane and PAF
c) Substance P, bradykinin
(E) CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
a) Drug therapy of hypertension, shock, angina, cardiac arrhythmias
b) Renin angiotensin system
c) Diuretics
d) Coagulants and anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs
e) Hypo-lipidemics
(F) GASTROINTESTINAL AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
a) Emetics and antiemetics
b) Drugs for constipation and diarrhoea
c) Drug treatment of peptic ulcer
d) Drug therapy of bronchial asthma
e) Pharmacotherapy of cough
(G) Hormones
a) Reproductive hormones – testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, contraceptives
b) Drug therapy of Diabetes
c) Thyroid hormones Pharmacology
d) Pituitary-hypothalamic axis
e) Corticosteroids
f) Oxytocin and drugs acting on uterus
g) Drugs affecting calcium balance
(H) CHEMOTHERAPY
a) General principles of antimicrobial chemotherapy, rational use of antibiotics
b) Chemotherapeutic agents – Penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, aminoglycoside, tetracyclines, chloramphericol and polypeptide antibiotics etc.
c) Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, UTI
d) Chemotherapy of parasitic infection
e) Chemotherapy of fungal infections
f) Cancer Chemotherapy
(I) MISCELLANEOUS
a) Immunomodulators
b) Drug therapy of glaucoma and cataract
c) Treatment of poisoning

PAPER-II

COMMUNITY MEDICINE
1. BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
Culture, Society and Health
• Role of Family in health and disease
• Health, illness behaviour
• Social Organization and Community Participation
• Measurement of Socioeconomic Status and its importance in relation to health and disease.
• Questionnaire/Interview schedule designing
• Practical: Construction and pre-testing of questionnaire/ interview schedule
• Attitudes: nature, development, methods to change
• Measurement of attitudes
• Questionnaire design to test attitudes.
2. HEALTH EDUCATION
– Definition and principles of health education
– Health educational methods
– Audiovisual aids
– The art of communication
– Skills of communication
– Methods of overcoming resistance in the individual, family and community.
– Planning a health educational programme
– Use of other aids in health education
– Evaluation of health educational activities
– Information Education Communication Strategies
3. ENVIRONMENT
• Environment:
– housing
– physical environment inside and outside the home
– family environment
• Water
• Waste
• Air pollution, green house effect, ozone layer
• Noise and radiation pollution
• Vectors of disease
• Vector Control and insecticidal resistance.
4. BIOSTATISTIC
• Need of Bio-statistics in Medicine
• Statistical Methods
• Frequency Distribution
• Measures of Central Tendency.
• Proportions
• Tabular & diagrammatic presentation of data probability
• Normal Distribution
• Standard error estimation
• Tests of Significance
• Alpha, Beta error
• Confidence Interval
• Bias/Random errors
• Sample size calculation
• Sampling methods
5. EPIDEMIOLOGY
• Definitions, scope in hospital, community, planning
• Measures of Morbidity/Mortality
• Rates: Incidence, Prevalence
– Death rate
– Crude rates/standardized rates
– Fertility Rates Years
– Person Years
– Ratio
– Proportions
– Risk
– Sources of epidemiological data
– Causation
– Natural history of disease for communicable and non-communicable diseases.
– Levels of disease prevention
– Clinico-psycho-social case review
– Principles of control of communicable disease
– Principles of control of non-communicable disease
– Measurement
– Screening Tests
– Diagnostic Tests
– Cross sectional and case studies
– Longitudinal study
– Case control study
– Randomized Control Trials
6. NUTRITION
• Role of nutrition in health and disease
• Nutritional requirements and sources
• Balanced Diet
• Deficiency Disorders and Micronutrient Deficiencies
• Salt fortification
• Protein Energy Malnutrition
• Nutritional problems in India
• Nutritional programmes
• Assessment of nutritional status in community; Growth Charts.
7. MATERNAL & CHILD HEALTH
• Magnitude of the problem
• Maternal morbidity and mortality, under five morbidity mortality.
• Breast feeding/Weaning
• High risk mothers and children
• Family Planning Methods: Spacing and Terminal Methods and emergency contraception
8. REHABILITATION
• Need for Rehabilitation. Types of rehabilitation. Types of impairment, disability, handicap
• Assessment of Postpolio Residual Paralysis
• Rehabilitation at individual level
• Community based rehabilitation
9. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES
• Malaria
• STDs / HIV/AIDS
• Pulmonary Tuberculosis
• Leprosy
• Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus
• Poliomyelitis
• Measles, Mumps & Rubella
• Chicken, A.R.I.
• Diarrhoeal Diseases
• Infective Hepatitis
• Kala azar
• Arbo viral diseases
• Filaria
• Plague
• Intestinal infestations
• Investigation of an Epidemic
• Immunity
• Immunization schedule
• Cold chain
• Immunization for international travel
• Surveillance for diseases
• Nutritional Disorders
• RHD /CHD / Hypertension
• Cancers
• Blindness
• Road Traffic Accidents
• Diabetes mellitus
• Obesity Community Medicine
10. IMPORTANT NATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMMES
• Health Programmes on:
• RCH (including ARI, Diarrhoeal Diseases)
• Immunization
• Family Welfare
• Iodine Deficiency
• Nutrition, ICDS
• Tuberculosis
• Malaria, Filaria, Kala Azar
• Evaluation of a health programme
• HIV/ AIDS & STDs
• Leprosy
• RHD/ CHD/ Hypertension
• Diabetes
• Blindness
• Cancer
11. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
– Working environment, health hazards of industrial and agricultural workers
– Common occupational lung diseases
– Common occupational skin diseases and cancers
– Industrial Toxic Substances
– Principles of prevention of Occupational diseases
– Legal status in relation to Workman Compensation Act
– Employees’ State Insurance Act
12. HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
– Planning and organizational set up of health services in India
– Primary Health Care
– Health Team at District Hospital, Community Health Primary Health Centre
– School Health
– Management of health resources
– Voluntary and international agencies in health care
– Natural and manmade disasters and disaster management
13. HEALTH ECONOMICS
– Need of health economics
– Methods of economic analyses in health Community Medicine
14. GERIATRICS
• Problems of the elderly
• Social organizations to assist the elderly
15. COUNSELLING
• The students will observe counseling being done in the various situations
DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY
1. Infective dermatoses: Pyoderma, tuberculosis and leishmaniasis- Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
2. Infective dermatoses: Viral and fungal infections- Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
3. Infestations: Scabies and pediculosis – Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
4. Melanin synthesis: Disorders of pigmentation (Vitiligo, Chloasma / Melasma)- Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
5. Allergic disorders: Atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis – Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
6. Drug eruptions, urticaria, erythema multiforme, Steven’s johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis – Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
7. Vesiculo-bullous diseases: Pemphigus, Pemphigoid, Dermatitis herpetiformis – Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
8. Epidermopoisis, Psoriasis, Lichen planus and Pityriasis rosea – Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
9. Pathogenesis, Classification and clinical features of leprosy, Reactions in leprosy.
10. Diagnosis, treatment and control of leprosy.
11. Syphilis – Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
12. Gonococcal and Non-gonococcal infections – Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
13. Chancroid, LGV, Donovanosis, Herpes progenitalis – Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and treatment.
14. Syndromic approach to the diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted diseases.
15. HIV infection, Cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection and their management.
16. Hereditary disorders: Ichthyosis, Albimism, Epidermolysis bullosa, Melanocytic naevi, Freckles and other naevi – Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment.
17. Dermatological Emergencies.
MEDICINE & Allied Specialities
Clinical genetics – common types, clinical presentation, investigation and prevention of genetic diseases and genetic counseling
Medical disorders during pregnancy
Principles of Geriatric Medicine
Clinical Pharmacology
Nutritional and metabolic disorders
Water, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance
Critical care Medicine
Physiology of the critically ill patient
Major manifestations of critical illness
Circulatory failure: shock
Respiratory failure
Renal failure Medicine
Coma
Sepsis
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
General principles of critical care management
Scoring systems in critical care
Outcome and costs of intensive care
Pain management and palliative care
General principles of pain
Assessment and treatment of pain
Palliative care
Medical Psychiatry
Classification of psychiatric disorders
Aetiological factors in psychiatric disorders
The clinical interview and mental state examination
Major manifestations of psychiatric illness
Disturbed and aggressive behaviour
Delusions and hallucinations
Depressive Symptoms
Anxiety symptoms
Deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation
Alcohol misuse and withdrawal
Misuse of drugs other than alcohol
Medically unexplained physical symptoms and functional somatic syndromes
Psychiatric and psychological aspects of chronic and progressive disease
Clinical syndromes
Organic brain syndromes
Substance abuse
– Alcohol
– Drugs
Bipolar disorders
Depressive disorders
Schizophrenia
Treatments used in psychiatry
Psychological treatments
Physical treatments
Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders
Anxiety
Obsessive compulsive disorders
Dissociative disorders
Sleep disorders
Legal aspects of psychiatry
Poisonings
General approach to the poisoned patient
Poisoning by specific pharmaceutical agents
Drugs of misuse
Chemicals and pesticides
Snake bite and Envenomation
Other bites and stings – scorpion, spider
Specific environmental and occupational hazards
Heatstroke and hypothermia
Drowning and near drowning
Electrical injuries
Radiation injury
Heavy metal poisoning
Immune response and Infections
Basic considerations
Patterns of infection
Laboratory diagnosis of infections
Principles of immunization and vaccine use
Clinical syndromes
The febrile patient
Fever and rash
Fever of unknown origin
Infective endocarditis
Intra-abdominal infections and abscesses
Acute infectious diarrhoeal diseases and food poisoning
Sexually transmitted diseases – overview & clinical approach
Infections of skin, muscle & soft tissues
Osteomyelitis Medicine
Hospital acquired infections
Infections in immuno-compromised hosts
Specific Infections – Epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and
prevention of :
_ Protozoal infections
_ Amobiasis
_ Malaria
_ Leishmaniasis
_ Toxoplasmosis
_ Giardiasis
_ Trichomoniasis
_ Trypanosomiasis
_ Bacterial infections
_ Streptococcal infections
_ Pneumococcal infections
_ Staphylococcal infections
_ Meningococcal infections
_ Gonococcal infections
_ Legionella infections
_ Pertussis and Diphtheria
_ Tetanus
_ Botulism
_ Gas gangrene, other clostridial infections
_ Cholera
_ Salmonellosis – Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers
_ Shigellosis and bacillary dysentery
_ Brucellosis
_ Plague
_ Donovanosis (Granuloma inguinale)
_ Helicobacter Pylori
_ Infections due to pseudomonas & other gram – negative bacteria
_ Anaerobic infections
_ Mycobacterial diseases
_ Tuberculosis
_ Leprosy
_ Viral infections
_ Common exanthemata
– Measles
– Mumps
– Rubella
– Varicella
_ Common viral respiratory infections
_ Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
_ Viral gastroenteritis
_ Dengue fever
_ Rabies
_ Rickettsia, Mycoplasma & Chlamydial diseases
_ Fungal infections
_ Candidiasis
 _ Aspergillosis
_ Histoplasmosis
_ Cryptococcosis
_ Mucormycosis
_ Pneumocystis carinii
_ Helminthic infections
_ Nematodes
– Tissue
– Intestinal
_ Cestodes
– Tissue
– Intestinal
SYSTEM-BASED DISEASES
Cardiovascular system
_ Clinical examination of the cardiovascular system
_ Functional anatomy, physiology and investigations
_ Major manifestations of cardiovascular disease
_ Chest pain
_ Breathlessness
_ Palpitation
_ Acute circulatory failure (cardiogenic shock)
_ Heart failure
_ Hypertension
_ Presyncope and syncope
_ Cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death
_ Abnormal heart sounds and murmurs
_ Atrial fibrillation
_ Disorders of heart rate, rhythm and conduction
_ Congestive cardiac failure
_ Rheumatic fever
_ Valvular heart disease
_ Ischaemic heart disease
_ Congenital heart disease in the adult
_ Cor pulmonale
_ Hypertension
_ Peripheral vascular disease
_ Atherosclerosis
_ Pericardial disease
_ Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy
Respiratory system
_ Clinical examination of the respiratory system
_ Functional anatomy, physiology and investigations
_ Major manifestations of lung disease
_ Cough
_ Dyspnoea
_ Chest pain
_ Haemoptysis
_ The solitary radiographic pulmonary lesion
_ Respiratory failure
_ Upper and lower respiratory infections
_ Bronchial asthma
_ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
_ Pulmonary tuberculosis
_ Suppurative lung diseases
_ Bronchiectasis
_ Lung abscess
_ Plural effusion and empyema
_ Interstitial and infiltrative lung diseases
_ Occupational lung diseases
_ Tumors of the bronchus and lung
_ Pulmonary vascular diseases
– Pulmonary hypertension
– Pulmonary thromboembolism
_ Acute respiratory distress syndrome
_ Obstructive sleep apnoea
_ Diseases of the nasopharynx, larynx and trachea
_ Diseases of the mediastinum, diaphragm and chest wall
Kidney and genitourinary system
_ Clinical examination of the kidney and genitourinary system
_ Functional anatomy, physiology and investigations
_ Major manifestations of renal and urinary tract disease
_ Dysuria, pyuria, urethral symptoms
_ Disorders of urine volume
_ Hamaturia
_ Proteinuria
_ Oedema
_ Obstruction of the urinary tract
_ Incontinence
_ Acute and chronic renal failure
_ Infections of the kidney and urinary tract
_ Congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and urinary system
_ Glomerulonephritides
_ Tubulo-interstitial diseases
_ Renal involvement in systemic disorders
_ Drugs and the kidney
_ Renal vascular diseases
_ Urinary tract calculi and nephrocalcinosis
_ Tumors of the kidney and genitourinary tract
_ Renal replacement therapy
Gastrointestinal tract
_ Clinical examination of the abdomen
_ Functional anatomy, physiology and investigations particularly role of imaging, endoscopy and tests of function
_ Major manifestations of gastrointestinal disease
_ Abdominal pain (acute and chronic)
_ Dysphagia
_ Dyspepsia
_ Vomiting
_ Constipation
_ Diarrhoea
_ Abdominal lump
_ Weight loss
_ Gastrointestinal bleeding – upper and lower
_ Approach to the patient with gastrointestinal disease
_ Diseases of the mouth and salivary glands – oral ulcers, candidiasis, parotitis
_ Diseases of the oesophagus – GERD, other motility disorders, oesophagitis, carcinoma oesophagus
_ Diseases of the stomach and duodenum – gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, tumors of stomach
_ Diseases of the small intestine
_ Acute gastroenteritis & food poisoning
_ Intestinal tuberculosis
_ Inflammatory bowel disease
_ Malabsorption syndrome
_ Tumors of small intestine
_ Acute, sub-acute and chronic intestinal obstruction
_ Disorders of the colon and rectum
_ Bacillary dysentery
_ Amoebic colitis
_ Ulcerative colitis
_ Tumors of the colon & rectum
_ Irritable bowel disease
_ Abdominal tuberculosis
– Peritoneal
– Nodal
– Gastrointestinal
_ Ischaemic gut injury
_ Anorectal disorders
_ Diseases of the peritoneal cavity
_ Acute and chronic peritonitis
_ Ascites
_ Peritoneal carcinomatotis
Diseases of the pancreas
_ Acute and chronic pancreatitis
_ Tumors of pancreas

Liver and Biliary tract disease
_ Clinical examination of the abdomen for liver and biliary disease
_ Functional anatomy, physiology and investigations of hepatobiliary disease
_ Major manifestations of liver disease
_ ‘Asymptomatic’ abnormal liver function tests
_ Jaundice
_ Acute (fulminant) hepatic failure
_ Portal hypertension and ascites
_ Hepatic (portosystemic) encephalopathy
_ Hepatorenal failure
_ Liver abscess – amoebic & pyogenic
_ Viral hepatitis – acute and chronic
_ Alcoholic liver disease
_ Cirrhosis of liver and chronic liver disease
_ Drugs, toxins and liver
_ Fatty liver and non alcoholic steatohepatitis
_ Infiltrative diseases of liver
_ Wilson’s disease
_ Hemachromatosis
_ Tumors of the liver
_ Gallbladder and biliary tract diseases
_ Functional anatomy
_ Acute and chronic ‘cholecystitis’
_ Cholelithiasis
_ Tumors of gall bladder and bile ducts
Endocrinology and Metabolism
Diabetes mellitus
Disorders of the Thyroid gland
Disorders of The reproductive system
Disorder of The parathyroid glands
Disorder of The adrenal glands, hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
Hematological disorders
_ Clinical examination in blood disorders
_ Functional anatomy, physiology and investigations
_ Major manifestations of hematological diseases
_ Anaemia
_ Polycythemia
_ Leucopenia
_ Leucocytosis
_ Thrombocytopenia
_ Thrombocytosis
_ Pancytopenia
_ Lymphadenopathy
_ Splenomegaly
_ Bleeding
_ Venous thrombosis
_ Abnormal coagulation screen
_ Infections
_ Anemias
_ Myeloproliferative disorders
_ Haematological malignancies
_ Bleeding disorders
_ Disorders of coagulation and venous thrombosis
_ Blood products and transfusion
_ Bone marrow transplantation
Disorders of the immune system, connective tissue and joints
_ Introduction to the immune system and autoimmunity
_ Primary immune deficiency diseases
_ HIV, AIDS and related disorders
_ Major manifestations of musculoskeletal disease
_ Joint pains
_ Bone pain
_ Muscle pain and weakness
_ Regional periarticular pain
_ Back and neck pain
_ Approach to articular and musculoskeletal disorders
_ Inflammatory joint disease
_ Infectious arthritis
_ Inflammatory muscle disease
_ Osteoarthritis
_ Systemic connective tissue diseases – SLE, RA, PSS
_ Vasculitides
_ Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy
_ Sarcoidosis
_ Amyloidosis
_ Musculoskeletal manifestations of disease in other systems
_ Fibromyalgia
_ Diseases of bone
Neurological diseases
_ Clinical examination of nervous system
_ Functional anatomy, physiology and investigations
_ Major manifestations of nervous system disease
_ Headache and facial pain
_ Raised intracranial tension
_ Faintness, dizziness, syncope & vertigo
_ Sleep disorders
_ Disorders of movement
_ Ataxia
_ Sensory disturbances (numbness, tingling and sensory loss)
_ Acute confusional states
_ Coma and brain death
_ Aphasias and other focal cerebral disorders
_ Speech, swallowing and brain-stem disturbance
_ Visual disturbances
_ Sphincter disturbances
_ Migraine and cluster headaches
_ Seizures and epilepsy
_ Cerebrovascular disease
_ Dementias
_ Acute and chronic meningitis
_ Viral encephalitis
_ Diseases of cranial nerves
_ Intracranial tumours
_ Diseases of spinal cord
_ Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases
_ Parkinson’s disease and other extrapyramidal disorders
_ Cerebellar disorders
_ Motor neuron disease
_ Peripheral neuropathy
_ Neurological manifestations of system diseases
_ Nutritional and metabolic diseases of the nervous system
_ Myasthenia gravis and other diseases of neuromuscular junction
_ Diseases of muscle
OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY
BASIC SCIENCES
1. Normal & abnormal development, structure and function of female & male urogenital systems and the female breast.
2. Applied anatomy of the genito-urinary system, abdomen, pelvis, pelvic floor, anterior abdominal wall, upper thigh (inguinal ligament, inguinal canal, vulva, rectum and anal canal).

3.Physiology of permatogenesis.
4.Endocrinology related to male and female reproduction.
5. Anatomy & Physiology of urinary & lower GI (Rectum / anal canal), tract.
6. Development, structure & function of placenta, umbilical cord & amniotic fluid.
7. Anatomical & physiological changes in female genital tract during pregnancy fistulae.
8. Anatomy of fetus, fetal growth & development, fetal physiology & fetal circulation.
9. Physiological & neuro-endocrinal changes during puberty disorders, adolescence, menstruation, ovulation, fertilization, climacteric & menopause.
10. Gametogenesis, fertilization, implantation & early development of embryo.
11. Normal pregnancy, physiological changes during pregnancy, labour & puerperium.
12. Immunology of pregnancy
13. Lactation
14. Biochemical and endocrine changes during pregnancy, including systemic changes in cardiovascular, hematological, renal, hepatic and other systems. (Anaemia)
15. Biophysical and biochemical changes in uterus and cervix during pregnancy & labour.
16. Pharmacology of identified drugs used during pregnancy, labour, postpartum period with reference to their mechanism of action, absorption, distribution, excretion, metabolism, transfer of the drugs across the placenta, effect of the drugs on the fetus, their excretion through breast milk.
17. Mechanism of action, excretion, metabolism of identified drugs used in Gynaecology, including chemotherapeutic drugs.
18. Role of hormones in Obstetrics & Gynaecology.
19. Markers in Obstetric & Gynaecology – Non neoplastic and Neoplastic Diseases.
20. Pathophysiology of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina and external genitalia in healthy and diseased conditions.
21. Normal and abnormal pathology of placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and fetus.
22. Normal and abnormal microbiology of the genital tract – bacterial, viral & parasitic infections responsible for maternal, fetal and gynaecological disorders.
23. Humoral and cellular immunology in Obstetrics & Gynaecology.
II OBSTETRICS
1. Physiology of normal pregnancy, diagnosis of pregnancy, routine antenatal care, management of common symptoms in pregnancy, investigations to be carried out in pregnancy;
2. Drugs prescription during pregnancy and lactation
3. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy
4. Anaemia in Pregnancy : Heart disease in pregnancy
5. Antepartum haemorrhage Obstetrics & Gynaecology
6. Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)
7. Antenatal Fetal Surveillance
8. Rhesus Negative Pregnancy
9. Disorders of liver, kidneys in pregnancy
10. Multiple pregnancy
11. Puerperium, and its complications
12. Perinatal and maternal mortality in India
III GYNAECOLOGY
1. Anatomy of fetal genital tract, and its variations, supports of uterus, developmental anomalies of uterus.
2. Ectopic pregnancy; epidemiology, early diagnosis and management.
3. Physiology of menstruation, common menstrual problem.
4. Disorders of growth, amenorrhoeas
5. Fibroid uterus
6. Prolapse uterus
7. Vaginal discharge, sexually transmitted diseases
8. Precancerous lesions of female genital tract (cervix, vagina, vulva)
9. Carcinoma Cervix, epidemiology, staging diagnostic procedure, treatment.
10. Carcinoma Endometrium
11. Carcinoma ovary
12. Carcinoma vulva
13. Gestational Trophoblastic disease
14. Temporary and permanent methods of contraception
15. Menopause and related problems
16. Endometriosis
17. Genital Tract Fistulae
18. Adolescence, Pubertal changes, disorders of puberty
IV Contraception, Neonatology and Recent Advances
(a) Contraception (Male & Female)
(b) Medical terminal of pregnancy – safe abortion – selection of cases, technique & management of complication of medical and surgical procedures, MTP law Medical abortion & Emergency Contraception.
(c) Care of new born, neonatal resuscitation, detection of neonatal malformation.
(d) Neonatal sepsis – prevention, detection & management.
(e) Neonatal hyper-bilirubinemia – investigation & management including NICU care.
(f) Management of common neonatal problems
PEDIATRICS
Vital statistics
Growth and development
Nutrition
Immunization
Infectious diseases
Hematology
Respiratory system
Gastro Intestinal Tract
· Clinical approach to a child with jaundice, vomiting, abdominal pain, upper and lower
GI bleeding, hepato-splenomegaly.
· Acute diarrheal disease-Etiopathogenesis, Clinical differentiation of watery and invasive diarrhea, complications of diarrheal illness. Assessment f dehydration, treatment at home and in hospital.
Fluid and electrolyte management. Oral rehydration, composition of ORS.
· Persistent and chronic diarrhea
· Clinical features and management of acute viral hepatitis and acute liver failure, Causes & diagnosis of Chronic Liver Disease.
· Neonatal cholestasis, portal hypertension
· Common causes of constipation.
· Abdominal tuberculosis.
· Causes, clinical features and management of Portal hypertension, Reye’s syndrome, Celiac disease.
· Drug induced hepatitis
Central Nervous System
· Evaluation of milestones and developmental age· Localization of neurological deficit·
Clinical approach to a child with coma, mental retardation· Common causes and approach to convulsion· Clinical diagnosis, investigations and treatment of acute pyogenic meningitis, encephalitis & Tubercular Meningitis, Cerebral Malaria· Seizure Disorder-Causes and types of convulsions at different ages. Diagnosis categorization
&management of Epilepsy (Broad outline). Febrile convulsions-definition, types Management of seizures and status epilepticus. Causes, diagnosis and management of cerebral palsy. Acute flaccid paralysis – Differentiation between Polio and Guillain – Barre syndrome. Microcephaly, Hydrocephalus, chorea. Counseling parents for inherited neurological diseases. Infantile tremor syndrome, infantile hemiplegia Cardiovascular system
· Clinical features, diagnosis, investigation, treatment and prevention of acute rheumatic fever. Common forms of rheumatic heart disease in childhood. Differentiation between rheumatic and rheumatoid arthritis. Recognition of congenital acyanotic and cyanotic heart disease. Hemodynamics, clinical features and management of VSD, PDA, ASD
and Fallot’s tetralogy (Cyanotic spells). Recognition of congestive cardiac failure in children. Hypertension in children-recognition and referral. Diagnosis and management of bacterial endocarditis, pericardial effusion, myocarditis.
Genito-Urinary system
· Basic etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, complications and management of acute poststreptococcal glomerulo-nephritis and nephrotic syndrome. Etiology, clinical feature, diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection – acute and recurrent. Etiology, diagnosis and principles of management of acute failure. Causes and diagnosis of obstructive uropathy in children. Diagnosis and principles of management of chronic renal failure. Causes and diagnosis of hematuria. Renal and bladder stones. Hemolyticuremic syndrome.
Endocrinology
· Etiology clinical features & diagnosis of diabetes and hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and goiter in children. Delayed and precocious puberty
Neonatology
· Definition – live birth, neonatal period, classification according to weight and gestation, mortalit rates. Delivery room management including neonatal resuscitation and temperature control. Etiology, clinical features, principles of management and prevention of birth asphyxia. Birth injuries – causes and their recognition. Care of the normal newborn in the first week of life. Normal variations and clinical signs in the neonate. Breast feeding-physiology and its clinical management. Identification of congenital anomalies at birth with special reference to anorectal anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, diaphragmatic hernias, neural tube defects. Neonatal Jaundice:
causes, diagnosis and principles of management. Neonatal infection– etiology, diagnosis, principles of management. Superficial infections, sepsis. Low birth weight babies-causes of prematurity and small-for-date baby, clinical features and differentiation. Principles of feeding and temperature regulation. Problems of low birth weight babies. Identification of sick newborn (i.e. detection of abnormal signs – cyanosis, jaundice, respiratory
distress, bleeding, seizures, refusal to feed, abdominal distension, failure to pass meconium and urine. Recognition and management of specific neonatal problemshypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, anemia, seizures, necrotizing enterocolitis, hemorrhage Common intra-uterine infections .Transportation of a sick neonate.
Pediatrics Emergencies
· Status epilepticus
· Status asthmaticus / Acute Severe Asthma
· Shock and anaphylaxis.
· Burns
· Hypertensive emergencies.
· Gastrointestinal bleed.
· Comatose child
· Congestive cardiac failure
· Acute renal failure
Fluid-Electrolyte
· Principles of fluid and electrolyte therapy in children
· Pathophysiology of acid-base imbalance and principle of management
Genetics
· Principles of inheritance and diagnosis of genetic disorders
· Down’s syndrome
Behavioral Problems
· Breath holding spells, nocturnal enuresis, temper tantrums, pica
Pediatrics Surgical Problems: Diagnosis and timing of surgery of Cleft lip/palate, hypospadias, undescended testis, tracheoesophageal fistula, hydrocephalus, CTEV, Umbilical and inguinal hernia, malformations, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
Therapeutics: Pediatric doses, drug combinations, drug interactions, age specific choice of antibiotics.
SURGERY & Allied specialities
Pathogenesis, causes, epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Investigations, and management of the diseases in the following systems:
1. Skin: ulcers and wounds, wound infections, burns, skin infections (boils, carbuncle, abcess), cysts (epidermoid cyst, dermoid),skin tumors(basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma).
2. Head and Neck region: congenital anomalies (cleft lip, cleft palate, branchial cyst and fistula, thyroglossal cyst) swellings of parotid and submandibular glands, oral ulcers, leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, common jaw tumors, squamous carcinoma of oral cavity, pharynx & larynx.Thyroid swellings (adenomatous goitre,
Graves’ Disease, papillary and follicular thyroid cancer).Swellings of lymph nodes (tuberculosis, lymphoma, metastatic carcinoma)
3. Arteries: Features of limb Ischaemia, noninvasive vascular diagnostic tests, obliterative atheromatous disease, aneurysms, Raynaud’s syndrome, arterial emboli.
4. Veins: varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis , pulmonary embolism.
5. Breast: mastalgia, ANDI, fibroadenoma, cyst, breast abscess, cancer of the breast.
6. Oesophagus: dysphagia, reflux, hiatus hernia, benign and malignant tumours.
7. Stomach and duodenum: Peptic ulcer- stomach and duodenum, carcinoma of the stomach, gastritis.
8. Small intestine: Small bowel obstruction, intestinal tuberculosis.
9. Colon and rectum: Amoebic colitis, Ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer.
10. Appendix: Acute appendicitis.
11. Anus: Haemorrhoids, Pruritus ani, Fissure-in-ano, Anorectal abscesses, Fistula-in-ano, cancer of the anus.
12. Peritoneum and intraperitoneal abscesses: peritonitis.
13. Liver: Hepatic trauma, abscesses, cancer.
14. Biliary tract: gall stone disease, carcinoma of the gallbladder.
15. Pancreas: Acute panacreatitis, pancreatic cancer.
16. Acute abdomen
17. Hernias of the abdominal wall: Inguinal hernias, femoral hernia, umbilical and epigastric hernia.
18. Urology: Diagnostic studies and techniques in the urinary tract, trauma to the urinary tract, urinary calculi, urinary tract infection, prostatic hyperplasia, tumours of the kidney, epididymo-orchitis, hydrocele, tumours of the testicle, carcinoma of the penis.
ORTHOPAEDICS
Fracture:Definition, Classification, Principles of Management
· Fracture healing, delayed union. Classification & Management of open fractures
· Management of fracture calvicle, dislocation shoulder & fracture shaft humerus
· Classificaton of injuries around elbow & management of
· supracondylar fracture & dislocation of elbow
· Monteggia fracture dislocation & fracture both bones of forearm
· Volkamann’s Ischaemic Contracture
· Fracture of lower end of radius fracture scaphoid and metacarpals
· Fracture pelvis & dislocation of hip
· Fracture neck of femur
· Fracture shaft of femur & tibia
· Internal Derangements of Knee, Injuries of ankle & foot
· Amputations
· Congenital malformations: CTEV Torticollis
· Congenital Malformation : CDH, Pseudoarthrosis tibia etc.
· Disorders of the hip : coxa vara, perthes diseases
· Deformities of the spine
· Acute Pyogenic Ostyeomyelitis
· Chronic Pyogenic Osteomyelities
· Septic Arthritis
· Other Arthritides (Rheumatoid/Ank.Spond.)
· Osteo-articular tuberculosis:
· General consideration & principles of management
· Tuberculosis: Spine
· Poliomyelitis
· Bone Tumours: Benign tumors
· Bone Tumours: Malignant tumors
OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY
Nose: Deviated nasal septus, nasal polypi, angiofibroma. Tumours both benign and malignant, chronic granulomatous disease? Nose like rhinospondiosis and atrophic rhinitis.
Oral cavity and oropharynx
Tonsillitis, leukoplakia, carcinoma apthocu ulcers, pharyngitis, peritonsilla abscess, candidiasis.
Ear
Perichondritis, coax, otitis externa, secretary, otitis media, acute suppuratin otitis media, chronic supputatin otitis media (safe and unsafe), benign and malignant tumors of ear, larynx, vocal cord nodule, vocal polyp, carcinoma, vocal cord palsy.
Hypopharynx : Benign and malignant disease.
Neck : Lymphadenitis, metastatic neck benign and malignant tumors of neck, broncheal sinus, branchially
pyroid tumors, salvary gland tumors.
Emergencies : Respiratory obstruction foreign bodies in nose, ear, throat, trachobroncheal tree and esophagus nasal bleeding, trauma to neck.
OPHTHALMOLOGY
• Microbiology in relation to eye
• Pathology in relation to eye
• Pharmacology in relation to eye
• Symptomatology in Ocular disorders and their Pathogenesis
• Ocular involvement in systemic diseases
• Disorders of the Lid
• Disorders of the Lacrimal Apparatus
• Conjunctivitis & Ophthalmia Neonatorum
• Trachoma & Other chronic conjunctivitis
• Keratitis and corneal ulcers
• Corneal ulcer
• Scleritis & Episcleritis
• Refractive Errors & Method of correction
• Presbyopia, accommodation convergence
• Congenitial cataract
• Senile cataract
• Metabolic & complicated cataract
• Primary Angle closure glaucoma
• Congenitial glaucoma
• Primary Open angle glaucoma
• Secodary glaucomas
• Anterior uveitis
• Posterior uveitis
• Blindness prevalence, prevention & rehabilitation
• Retinopathies, Hypertensive, Toxaemia & Pregnancy
• Diabetic Retinopathy
• Retinal Detachment, types, symptoms & pre-disposing factors
• Endocrine ophthalmology
• Retinal vascular disorders
• Retinoblastoma & other ocular neoplasms
• Binocular vision amblyopia & concomitant squint
• Nutritional disorders
• Incomitant strabismus
• Visual acuity, pupillary path ways & cranial nerve palsies
• Optic nerve lesions
• Ocular emergencies (Traumatic)
• Ocular emergencies (Non-Traumatic)
• Minor ophthalmic surgery
• General principles of Intra ocular surgery
• National programme for control of blindness
• Comprehensive eye care in rural set up
• Eye banking & ethics in ophthalmology

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