The Discoverers of Indus Valley Civilization—
Harappa mound was first time mentioned by Charles Masson in 1829.
John Brunton and William Brunton found two ancient city of Harappa and Mohenjodaro in 1856.
John Marshall – He was the DG of ASI in 1927 and first professional Archaeologist of India.But he excated horizontlly and all finds were grouped together even when they were found at different stratigraphic layers. This caused loss of very valuable information regarding.
R.E.M. Wheeler – He followed the stratigraphy of excavations rather than just excavating horizontally.
Basic features of Indus Valley Civilization:-
The most accepted period- 2500BC-1750BC.
Harappa culture was a BRONZE AGE civilization. It belongs to Proto-Historic Period.
The Indus Valley civilization is the first known URBAN Culture in India.
Majority of the sites developed on the banks of river Indus, Ghaggar and its tributaries.
Highly developed and efficient town was important feature of civilization.
This civilisation is credited for building cities complete with : town planning, sanitation, DRAINAGE SYSTEM and broad well-laid roads and cities were built on GRID SYSTEM .
They also built double storied houses of BURNT-BRICKS complete with bathroom , kitchen, and a well.
Their Walled cities had important buildings such as, the GREAT BATH , GRANARIES and the Assembly Halls.
The Harappans cultivated wheat and barley and they were FIRST in world to grow COTTON . Greeks call it SINDON n. Evidence of Barley comes from BANAWALI. People cultivated rice as early as 1800 bc in RANGPUR and LOTHAL. KALIBANGAN gives evidence of PLOUGHED FIELD.
Their Agriculture was considered major occupation for rural areas.While the City residents were involved in internal & external trade which led to developed contacts with other civilizations ( e.g. Mesopotamia or Sumeria). MELUHHA was ancient name given to INDUS REGION. TERRACOTTA model of SHIP and large DOCKYARD was found at LOTHAL.
There is evidence of BEAD MAKERS from LOTHAL and CHANHUDARO.
Harappans were excellent potters as is evident by their artifacts.
Harappans also had technical knowledge of metals & process of alloying (e.g. bronze sculpture of dancing girl found in Mohenjodaro).
SEALS were made of STEATITE.
Harappans used to worship plants, animals and the forces of nature.
They also worshipped male god PASHUPATI SHIVA and a MOTHER GODDESS.
They also probably believed in life after death and also in charms and spells.
Their Seals were engraved with animal figures (e.g. HUMMED BULL, elephant and rhinoceros). This suggests that these animals were considered sacred.
The image of ‘PEEPAL’ tree is found depicted on many seals.
They did not have temples.
Harappan script is yet to be deciphered. Hence, our knowledge of Harappan civilization is solely based on archaeological evidence alone.
Harappans were the first people to cultivate COTTON. They knew the art of SPINNING & WEAVING.
Important sites of Indus Valley Civilisations–
HARAPPA was discovered by DAYARAM SAHANI in 1921.Harappa was an urban center. It is in Punjab Province (Montgomery distt) of Pakistan, located on an old river-bed of River RAVI.
It was discovered by RAKHALDAS BANNERJI in 1922. It is located in SINDH province of Pakistan (Larkana distt) , which is next to the river INDUS. It is also called “DEAD OF MOUNDS” and “NAKHLISTAN”.
It is situated on ‘Khadir Beyt’, which is an island in Rann of Kutch,GUJARAT, India.
It is located near the Sabarmati river and Arabian sea, in the Gulf of Khambat, GUJARAT, India. Rice husk and Terracotta figurine of a horse was found here.
It is LARGEST INDIAN SITE of Indus civilization. It was discovered in Haryana, India only in 1990.
It is Southern most site of Indus civilization. It is located in Maharashtra near Mumbai.
It is located just 80 miles south of Mohenjo Daro in SINDH, Pakistan. It has been established a manufacturing center.It is only city of indus civilization without a CITADEL.
It is located in Baluchistan. It is also the westernmost site of Harappan civilization.
only indus site where the remains of horse have been found.
Various causes of DECLINE were Aryan invasion, tectonic movement, ecological disasters etc.
Contemporary civilizations of Indus civilization— Mesopotamia, Egypt and China.